The exiled in Spanish and Polish transition. Crematorio by Rafael Chirbes and Niskie Łąki by Piotr Siemion
The aim of the article is to present a picture of the exiled in a society undergoing processes of democratic transformation on the basis of Crematorio (2009), a novel by Rafael Chirbes, and Niskie Łąki by Piotr Siemion (2000). The author employs a research method from comparative literature and refers to the category of supranationality (“supranacionalidad”) proposed by Claudio Guillén, a Spanish comparativist. An analysis of the texts indicates that the presence of the exiled, notwithstanding fundamental differences concerning e.g. the evaluation of capitalism, serves to extract and highlight the end of great narrations which accompanies transformation processes: in the Spanish novel it is the end of ideology (communism) and history (F. Fukuyama) whereas Niskie Łąki refers to the end of the romantic paradigm (M. Janion).